Etiyopya eskiden Abyssinia (Habeşistan) olarak bilinirdi. Aynı zamanda 1928 de Java adasına götürelen bir akhve türünün adıdır. (Yemen’den Batavia’ya götürülen orijinal Typica değil, Java üzerinden Hindistan’a götürülen) O günden sonra Açe’ye de götürülmüşlerdir. USDA denilen bir başka bir Etiyopya varyasyonuda Sumatrada bulunmuştur. Daha sonra 1950lerde Amerikan bir proje bu çekirdekleri Endonezya’ya götürmüştür.
Acaia genel olarak Brezilya’da ekilir. Acaia genotipi, Sumatra ve Burbon çeşitlerinin doğal bir hibriti olan Mundo Novo germplazmından seçilmiş döller ile oluşmuştur. (“Sumatra eski ICO koleksiyonundandır, fakat eski Typica mı yoksa hibritmi olduğu bilinmiyor”)
Açe bölgesi Kuzey Sumatra’nın kuzeyinde yer alır ve çok klasik Sumatra kahveleri üretirler. Açe de kahvenin merkezi Tawar ve Takegon gölerinin yanında yer alan şehirdir. Açe bölgesinde yer alan ve bu bölge ile en çok özleştirilmiş etnik gurubun adı Gayo’dur.
Keskinlik kahvedeki hoş olmayan ekşiliğe denir. Fermantasyon sırasında oluşmuş problemlerden kaynaklı, yeşil kahvenin bozulmasından kaynaklı olabileceği gibi. Demleme sorununa da işaret edebilir ya da kahvenin uzun süre yüksek ısıya maruz kaldığında bitter bir ekşililkde oluşabilir.
Acetic Acid (Asetik asit)
Asetik asit yetişkin kahvelerde sirkemsi bir tada yol açabilir ya da yüksek adetlerde keskinliğe. Fakat orta miktarda fincana pozitif şarabımsı bir nota kazandırır. Asetik asit organik bir asit olarak sınıflandırılır ve koklayarak belirlenebilir.
Bir çok asit kahve tadına katkıda bulunur. Malik, Sitrit, Kinik, Tartarik, Fosforik vb. Asitlilik ya da belirli asitlere göz atmayı unutmayın. Kahve içinde asitler kulağa hoş gelmiyor değil mi ? Kahvenin mide ekşimesine yol açtığına dair bilgiler genellike doğru değildir. Sindirim sisteminde yiyecek yokken kahve tüketmek rahatsızlığa yol açabilir. Çünkü kahve içinde sindirim asitlerini tetikleyecek kadar yağ yoktur. Önce yemek yiyip sonra kahve için ya da kahvaltınıza ederken kahvenizi tüketin, O zaman mutlu bir mideniz olacaktır.
Kötü çekirdek, kötü kavurma ya da kötü demlemeden kaynaklı genel bir kötü tat terimi: Tatta ve kokuda , hoş olmayan, burukluk veya keskinlik.
Afternose (Burunda kalan koku)
Şarapçılıktan geçmiş bir terimdir. Ağızda kalan tadın (after taste) burun versiyonudur. Yani kahvenin koku paletinin kokladıktan sonra burnunuzda kalan aromasını tanımlar.
Agtron spektrofotometreler kahve endüstrisinde ve diğer laboratuvar uygulamalarında renk eşleştirme, renk analizi, sırlama ya da diğer bilimsel ölçümler için kullanılır. Kahve endüstrisinde çoğunlukla yapılan kavurmanın bir önceki profil ile aynı olup olmadığını anlamak için kullanılır.
Ketonlar ile birlikte, Aldehitler, kavurma sırasında yağlı asitler ve oksijennin etkileşiminden ortaya çıkan kahve armomasında rol oynayan organik bir birleşimdir. Aldehitler kısmen kahve kavurma ortamında amino asitlerin Strecker Degradation isimli kimyasal reaksiyona uğraması sonucu oluşurlar.
Berkeley Kaliforniya’daki Peet’s Coffee’nin kurucusu, Alfred Btyı yakasına koyu kavurmayı yeniden tanıdan kişi olarak bilinir. Uzun süre yapılan açık kavurmaların temelinde ekonomi vardı ; kahveyi ne kadar kavurursanız o kadar ağırlık kaybedersiniz böylece satabileceğiniz daha az ürününüz olur.Onun koyu kavurma stili buna karşı duruyordu, Peet’s en yüksek kalite çekirdekleri alması ile tanınıdrdı. Peet’s 1979 da tattı fakat yeşil kahve almaya 1983’e kadar devam etti. Ağustos 2007’de aramızdan ayrıldı.
Kuruluk ve buna bağlı acılık tatları ile karakterize bir tat hissi, bazen dilin arka kısmında , genellikle after-taste olarak algılanır. Bu ılımlı yoğunluklarda, her zaman tamamen kötü bir şey değil. Bazı insanların hoşuna giden uzun süreli bir tat bırakır.
Kahvenin yetiştiği bölgenin deniz seviyesinden yükskliği. Yüksekte yetişen kahvenin genellikle daha iyi olduğu, bir kuraldan ötedir. Yüksekte yetişmiş kahveler daha yavaş olgunlaşır ve daha yoğun çekirdekleri vardır. Böylece daha eşit kavrulabilirler. Genel kalite ve asidite puanları yükseklik ile birlikte artar. Güneş ve orta Afrika’da kahveler yetiştikleri yüksekliklere göre sınıflandırılır ve puanlanır.
Ambient Temperature (Ortamsıcaklığı)
Bu terim kahve kavrulan ortamın ortalama sıcaklığını tanımlar. Kahve kavururken ısının aşırı koşulları kavurmayı etkiler. Çok soğuk bir ortam sıcaklığı kavurmayı yapanın düzgün bir sonuca varması için daha çok çalışmasını gerektirir. Ortam sıcaklığı istenilen kavurma derecesine ulaşma süresinide değiştirebilir. Bazı durumlarda kavurucular çok soğuk ortamlarda çalışamazlar.
Arabica, Arabica çekirdeklerini tanımlar. Dünyada hasatı yapılan kahvelerin 75% i Arabica ailesindendir. Coffea Arabica yaprak dökmeyen odunsu bir bitkidir ve Rubiaceae (Gardenya bitkisi ile aynı aile) ailesinden gelmektedir.
Arabigo Latin Amerika’da Typica türüne verilen isimdir.
Coffea arabica ve coffea türler arası bir melez.
Tanzanya’dan bir türün adı, aynı zamanda Meru dağından ihraç edilen Tanzanya kahvelerinin genel adı.
Bahasa Endonezyacasında soyulmuş, kurutulmuş ve bir ihracatçıya hazır olan yeşil kahveler anlamına gelir. Kuzey Sumatra ve Açe bölgelerinde kullanılır.
Aroma ve/veya tatta yer alan küllüğü andıran bir kalitedir. Sigara içen kişilerin parmakları ya da ateş yakılmış bir yeri temizlediğinizde çıkan kokuya benzer. Az miktarlarda kahveniz berbat olmayabilir ama hiç bir zaman pozitif bir kalite olarak anılmamıştır. Küllü tat veya koku kavurma sorunlarının habercisi olabilir. Temiz olmayan havalandırılmamış bir tambur buna sebep olabilir. Aynı kavurma koşullarında alçak yüksekliklerde yetişen kahveler küllü tadı yükseklerde yetişen kahvelere göre daha çabuk verirler.
“Büzücü” sert bir lezzet hissidir, buruk bir tatdı, sert bir reaksiyona sebep olabilir. Kuruluğa, tuzluluğa, ekşiliğe ve sertliğe sahip olabilir. Tadı her zaman etkiler.
Ateng ve bir kaç alt türü genellikle Sumatra’da Catimor kahveleri için genel kullanılan isimdir. Ateng Haluk olarakta duyabilirsiniz. Arabica ve Robusta arası hibrit bir türdür ve zayıf tadı ile tanınır. Fakat bazı Catimor kahveleri değişik demleme yöntemleri ile iyi sonuç verebilmektedir. Ateng ismi Aceh (Açe) Tenggah bölgesinden türetilmiştir
Backflushing is a process done to espresso machines to clean them: a filter basket with no holes (a “blank” basket) is inserted into the portafilter so that when the machine is activated, pressurized water cannot escape and is instead forced back into the machine to “flush” it. Often, backflushing is done with some type of coffee cleaning detergent in the basket. A typical backflushing protocol is to put coffee cleaner in the blank basket and backflush 5 times, then rinse the cleaner out and backflush 5 times without no cleaner. Note that not all machines can be backflushed.
Coffees that are held for too long run the risk of this taint. Essentially the coffee comes to absorb the flavors of whatever it is stored in – usually the burlap or jute bag. Many times a darker roast on these coffees will conceal this taint. Baggy flavors are the result of several factors: the fats in the coffee absorbing the smell of burlap, the loss in moisture content as the coffee ages, and other chemical changes. For some origins theses changes in flavor can emerge in 1 year, 9 months, even 6 months for some decafs
Baked flavor happens in under-roasted coffees haven’t developed their character, or coffees that simply sat in the roaster too long without enough heat. It can also happen to scorched coffees where the outside of the bean is browned and the inside is under-roasted. Flavors are typically astringent, grain-like, sour, and body is thin and possibly gritty.
Balance is both an obvious and slippery taste term. It implies a harmony and proportion of qualities, and perhaps a mild character since no one quality dominates. Balance can exist between aromatics, flavors, textural sensations, and aftertaste, or between competing flavors. Bittersweet is a term that implies a balance of 2 basic sapid flavors.
“In the mouth” sensations derived from the basic flavors: salty, sweet, sour, bitter, savory (umami). These are the core sensations that can be experienced without the input of the olfactory, through the papilla located in taste buds on the tongue.
One of the most important variables in roasting coffee, the weight or volume of the coffee being put in to the roaster will dramatically effect the outcome of the roast. A good scale or the right scoop is a must when deciding what size batches to use as different coffees have varying densities and bean sizes. In using air roasters batches must be carefully measured by volume. In using drum roasters batches must be carefully weighed.
Behmor Coffee Roaster
A drum roaster designed for home roasters, with variable batch sizes (from 1/4 pound to 1 pound) and a smoke-reduction system.
In Latin American countries, a wet mill is called a Beneficio, where fresh coffee cherries are brought for pulping, fermentation, and drying. In Rwanda and some other African countries it is a “washing station”. In Kenya it is a “coffee factory”.
Bergamot orange is used to scent Earl Grey tea, in perfumery and confection baking. It is the size of an orange, with a yellow color similar to a lemon, and has a pleasant fragrance. The juice tastes less sour than lemon, but more bitter than grapefruit. It is only grown commercially in Calabria Italy
Bergendal is found less and less frequently in Aceh, Sumatra. It is a low-producing plant of Typica origins. Much of the Typica was lost in the late 1880s, when Coffee Leaf Rust swept through Indonesia. However, both the Bergendal and Sidikalang varieties of Typica can still be found in More remote areas. It is possible the name derives from Berg und Tal, ” hill and valley.”
Bittersweet is from the language of chocolate, and describes the co-presence of positive bittering compounds balanced by sweetness. It is directly related to caramelization, but has inputs from other roast reactions, as well as bittering flavors such as trigonelline. Bittersweet is usually a roast flavor term, but is always specific to the green coffee too (good bittersweetness would not develop at any roast level in a coffee without the native compounds to engender it). Usually, bittersweetness of a coffee develops as the roast gets darker and eventually overpowers other flavors. It dark roasts, acidity is reduced, while the caramely taste of sugars form the stimulating bittersweetness.
A coffee bean whose interior is totally back (endosperm), due to fungi, mold, yeast, pest. This happens with over-mature coffee cherry where the bean falls to the ground and is attacked by the Colletotrichum coffeeeanum fungus, or other aforementioned problem. Overfermentation of mature cherries can also result in back beans due to mold and yeast attack. Full black beans score 1 full defect point in coffee grading (the worst type of defect). Black beans will resist roasting and have a very harsh, acrid flavor
Blackberry is found as a fragrance, aroma or flavor in some coffees. I find that it is less obvious at very light roast levels, such as City roast, and is more pronounced at City+ to Full City. It might be found in a wide range of origins, from Rwanda and Kenya, to Guatemala and Colombia. Mora is the blackberry found in Latin America, and is a slightly different plant than what we call blackberry in North America.
The standard home coffee grinder, which works by way of a high-speed rotating blade. Blade grinders are inexpensive, but this comes at the expense of accuracy: grounds from a blade grinder are substantially less even than those from a burr grinder. Still, they are durable and when paired with the right brew method (especially those that use paper filters) they are quite acceptable. Don’t knock the blade mill! It keeps people grinding coffee fresh, right before brewing, which makes a huge difference in the coffee aromatics.
A blend is a mixture of coffees from multiple origins. Coffees are typically blended to produce a more balanced cup. Here at Sweet Maria’s, almost all of the blends you’ll see are made with espresso in mind.
Blue Mountain Cultivar
A C. Arabica Var. Typica coffee that shares other features of Typica plants, but also shows some resistance to CBD: Coffee Berry Disease. It is said to be grown in Papua New Guinea but pure lots have not been found, and we buy a small lot of this cultivar from a plot in Kona, Hawaii each year.
An espresso portafilter with the bottom machined off so the bottom of the filterbasket is exposed. Bottomless portafilters allow you to view distribution problems and channeling: if the flow is uneven across the bottom of the filterbasket, the distribution of grounds in the basket is uneven.
Bourbon, along with Typica, are main Coffea Arabica cultivars. Bourbon was developed by the French on the island of Bourbon, now Reunion, in the India Ocean near Africa. The seeds were sold to the French by the British East India Company from Aden, Yemen, and were planted in 1708. After generations, it began to express unique characteristics and became more robust. Bourbon has slightly higher yields and is more robust than Typica in general. It has a broader leaf and rounder cherry (and green bean) than Typica, a conical tree form, and erect branches. It has many local variants and sub-types, including Tekisic, Jackson, Arusha, and the Kenya SL types. In general, Bourbon can have excellent cup character. The cherry ripens quickly, but is at risk from wind and hard rain. It is susceptible to major coffee diseases. Bourbon grows best at altitudes between 1100 – 2000 MASL. Bourbon coffees should have green tips (new leaves) whereas Typicas should have bronze-to-copper tips.
A Bourbon cultivar variant from Rwanda and Burundi, from the early part of the 20th century. Bourbon coffees are named for the island in the India Ocean where French colonists grew it.
Brazil Coffee Grades
Brazil has it’s own grading system for defects. There is a size and physical defect grade, as well as a flavor defect grade. The Brazil flavor grading rates coffee as Strictly Soft (the best), Soft, ‘Soft-ish’, Hard (+1, +2), Riado, Rioy, Rio Zona (the worst).
In coffee cupping, the “breaking of the crust” of floating grounds, part of aromatic evaluation. You add water to the coffee grounds, filling the cup, and wait 4 minutes. At this point there is still a crust of floating coffee grinds. You put your nose right above the cup and “break” this crust by stirring it with the spoon. The grinds sink, and the coffee can be tasted anywhere from 5-15 minutes after the break.
Brewed Coffee refers to all coffee preparations produced by adding non-pressurized water to coffee grounds. Contrasted with espresso coffee, which is produced under pressure, brewed coffee is primarily an extraction, and contains a lower amount of total dissolved solids (TDS) and has thinner body.
A euphemistic term to describe acidity in coffee. A bright coffee has more high, acidic notes. Not to be confused with the brighter roast flavors of light roast levels, such as City to City+ roasts. Read more about acidity to understand its use as a flavor term, not in reference to the quantity of acidity in coffee.
Brown sugar is a type of sweetness found in coffee …a sweetness characterized by a hint of molasses, yet quite refined as well. Since Brown sugar of the common type is highly refined (made by recombining molasses with refined white sugar) it makes sense that it’s qualities are only mildly rustic. One might distinguish between mild light brown sugar and dark brown types.
Burlap bags are the traditional container in which coffee is transmitted. Burlap is cheap, but long storage in burlap bags may result in a characteristic “baggy” defect taste.
Burnt flavors in coffee are the result of over-roasting, fast roasting, or roasting in a high-heat environment. This often occurs when the initial roaster temperature when the green coffee is introduced is too high. Usually, scorching and tipping result in burnt flavors. Sometimes, smokey notes in a cup can be a result of native qualities to the coffee, and not necessarily a defect, or the result of an exotic process such as a Monsooned or Aged coffee.
A coffee grinder that grinds by passing a flow of beans between a pair of rotating metal discs. The distance between the discs is adjustable, and this adjustment allows one to accurately set the size of the grind. The larger the diameter of the burrs, the faster the grinder is able to grind. Burr grinders can be either “conical” or “flat” burred, each with their own advantages. Ironically, both the cheapest and the most expensive espresso grinders have conical burrs, while mid-range burr grinders and commercial bulk coffee grinders have flat burrs. Grinders can also be divided into “doser” and “doser-less” models: a doser is a mechanism for dosing ground coffee into a portafilter for espresso. Doser models may be more convenient for espresso, but are more difficult to use when grinding coffee into a container for brewed coffee.
Buttery is primarily a mouthfeel description indicating thickness and creamyness. It indicates a high level of lipids (fats) in the coffee, often. Buttery can also be a flavor description, or a combination of both mouthfeel and flavor
An alkaloidal compound that has a physiological effect on humans, and a slight bittering flavor. It is found throughout the coffee plant but is more concentrated in the seed / coffee bean. Arabica ranges from 1.0 to 1.6% caffeine, and Robusta (Coffea
A standard volume measurement for coffee cherry used in Costa Rica. A Cajuela is a standard box size, or can also be a basket. One Cajuela can result in about 1.5 kilos green coffee. A good picker can pick 15 cajuelas per day.
A lightly refined sugar, that has a slight rustic sweetness, but without molasses-like flavors of brown sugar or raw sugar. It refers to a sugar that has not fully refined, yet is bleached white. This is commonly found in sugar-producing countries. Sugar bleached white by this sulfitation process is called “mill white”, “plantation white”, and “crystal sugar”.
Cappuccino is an espresso-based beverage with steamed silky milk on top, averaging 150-190 ml.
A defect term referring to oxidized, unpleasantly sharp cheese flavor, found in coffee that has not been stored correctly, or shipped with cheese.
The Spanish-language term for Peaberry, Caracol, is the same for “snail”.
Caramel is a desirable form of sweetness found in the flavor and aroma of coffee, and is an extension of roast taste. Extremely light or dark coffees will lose potential caramel sweetness. This is a broad term, and can find many forms since it relates to the degree of caramelization of sugars; light or dark caramel, butterscotch, cookie caramel, syrupy forms, caramel popcorn, various types of candy, caramel malt (beer brewing, many types).
Caramelization is slower than Maillard reactions, and requires higher temperatures. These reactions involve only sugars. They really begin up around 150C to 180C, with water being lost from the sugar molecule beginning the chain of events. In all cases the sugar is converted to a furfuryl. These are a type of furans that have a caramelly, slightly burnt and also slightly meaty notes. The same compound is produced via a different route in the Maillard reactions. However it is with prolonged high temperature that many other types of aromas are generated. Caramelisation is more predictable than Maillard reaction due to less variation in the starting compounds. Without the sulphur or nitrogen found in the amino acids caramelization is unable to produce flavors as meaty as Maillard reactions. It is interesting to note how the sugar solutions taste changes in caramelization. A sugar solution initially will be sweet with no aroma. Through caramelization it becomes both sour and a little bitter, as a rich aroma develops. Generally the longer sugar is caramelized the less sweet it tastes, so the key is to balance the benefits of uncaramelized sugar sweetness while avoiding light roast astringency and sourness.
Carbon Dioxide Process
A decaffeination method where beans are placed in a liquid bath of highly-pressurized CO2. As I understand it, supercritical CO2 acts as the solvent penetrating the coffee and extracting the caffeine, so when the coffee returns to normal temperature and pressure, there is no residue once the CO2 floats away. Some C02’s approach the chemical decafs in cup quality, others are nearer to SWP decafs. Here’s a longer and perhaps simpler explanation: Here is how it works: Coffee is mixed with water, and the beans expand in size, their pores get opened and the caffeine molecules become mobile. At this point carbon dioxide is added at 100 atmospheres pressure to the pure water. Basically the water and the carbon dioxide are mixed to create the sparkling water. The carbon dioxide acts like a magnet and attracts all the caffeine molecules that became movable. When the caffeine is captured by the carbon dioxide, this is removed. The carbon dioxide is very selective and it doesn’t touch the carbohydrates and proteins of the coffee beans, which would damage quality. When the carbon dioxide has finished removing the caffeine, the coffee seeds are dried naturally. Carbon dioxide is then recycled and caffeine is sold for other commercial uses.
A roast-related flavor term, referring to burnt flavors from dark roast levels. For some this is a pleasant flavor if residual sweetness is present, but plain carbon flavor is usually not pleasant.
Catimor is a broad group of cultivars derived from HdT (Hibrido de Timor) and Caturra cross, highly productive, sometimes with inferior cup flavor. The main issue is the
Catuai is a high-yield Arabica cultivar resulting from a cross of Mundo Novo and Caturra. The tree is short, with lateral branches forming close angles to the primary branches. It is robust and can tolerate areas with strong winds or rain. Catuai requires fertilization and care. It was developed by the Instituto Agronomico do Campinas in Brazil in the ’50s and ’60s, and is widely used in Brazil and Central America. There are yellow-fruited and red-fruited types, and many selections. In 2000, a new type called Ouro Verde was released with more vigor than Red Catuai.
Caturra is an Arabica cultivar discovered as a natural mutant of Bourbon in Brazil in 1937. It has a good yield potential, but was not ideal for Brazil growing conditions (due to lack of hardness and too much fruit in 3-4 production cycles). However, it flourished in Colombia and Central America and had good cup characteristics, possibly displaying citrus qualities. At higher altitudes quality increases, but production decreases, and it sometimes requires extensive care and fertilization. It has a good cup quality, and perhaps shows a more citric acidity, and lighter body than Bourbon.
Coffee Berry Borer is a pest that burrows into the coffee seed, and a major problem in many coffee origins. In Latin America it is known as Broca
Cellulose is the principle fiber of the cell wall of coffee. It is partially ordered (crystalline) and partially disordered (amorphous). The amorphous regions are highly accessible and react readily, but the crystalline regions with close packing and hydrogen bonding may be completely inaccessible. Native cellulose, or cellulose 1, is converted to polymorphs cellulose III and cellulose IV when exposed to heat. Coffee’s structure is a well developed matrix enhancing the mass uniformity and aiding in the even propagation of heat during roasting. Cellulose exists in coffee embedded in lignocellulose (an amorphous matrix of hemicellulose and lignin containing cellulose), making up the matrix cell walls. Hemicellusloses are polysaccharides of branched sugars and uronic acids. Lignin is of special note because it is a highly polymerized aromatic. Severe damage occurs to the cell walls of the matrix at distributed temperatures above 446 degrees F and bean surface temperatures over 536 degrees F The actual temperature values will change due to varying levels of other constituents. Second crack, associated with darker roasts, is the fracturing of this matrix, possibly associated with the volatilization of lignin and other aromatics. Under controlled roasting conditions, the bean environment temperature should never exceed 536 degrees F. A wider safety margin would be achieved by limiting the maximum environment temperature to 520 degrees F. These temperature limits minimize damage to the cell matrix and enhances cup complexity, roasting yield, and product shelf life.
Cenicafe promotes research in coffee to aid Colombia coffee farmers, as part of the FNC
Chaff is paper-like skin that comes off the coffee in the roasting process. Chaff from roasting is part of the innermost skin (the silverskin) of the coffee fruit that still cling to the beans after processing has been completed.
Channeling refers to the formation of small water jets during espresso brewing due to poorly distributed grounds. When high-pressure water is forced toward the espresso puck, the water attempts to find the path of least resistance out, so if the coffee is not distributed evenly the water may form a small “channel” through the puck, rather than being forced through the coffee. This will result in a watery, under-extracted cup.
This is a new caffeine-free coffee from Cameroon, the first record of a caffeine-free species from Central Africa. Cameroon is a center of diversity for the genus Coffea and such wild species are potentially important in breeding programs. In this case the new species could be used for breeding of naturally decaffeinated beans. Type Locality: Bakossi Forest Reserve, Tombel Division, Southwest Province, Cameroon. Etymology: “The name is in honour of a Professor A. Charrier, who managed coffee breeding research and collecting missions at IRD during the last 30 years of the 20th century.”
A coffee that has a kitchy quality, or literally cheese-like flavors in the cup. The second is actually a trade term, when their is a dairy-like sourness in the cup. We had this once in a Jamaica coffee. Also see Cappy
Chemex Coffee Brewer
A glass filter drip coffee brewer with an extended brew time.
A decaffeination method where beans are soaked in hot water, which is then treated with a chemical that bonds to caffeine (either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate).
The fruit is fleshy and soft, sweet, white in color, with a sherbet-like texture, which gives it its secondary name, custard apple. Some characterize the flavor as a blend of banana, pineapple, and strawberry. Others describe it as tasting like commercial bubblegum. It is native to the Andes
Chicory was a popular coffee substitute and economizer for 2 centuries, back when coffee was more prized, and pure coffee was a luxury. In that time, it became a matter of cultural preference to use chicory in coffee, in the United States it was synonymous with New Orleans coffee. The specific taste of famous New Orleans brands is due to the blend of dark roasted coffee and chicory. But when I worked in New Orleans I found how stale the coffee was, and what low quality chicory was being used. If you use high quality coffee, like our French Roast Blend that you roast yourself, and a true imported French Chicory, you will get optimal results with that typical New Orleans Cafe au Lait cup character. Read the review below for the ratio of coffee-to-chicory typically used. I was always told that Chicory was related to the Radish and that is what I wrote on this page. But you savvy readers won’t let me make such errors: Chicory is in the plant family Compositae or Asteraceae, the sunflower family. Think Jerusalem artichoke. Radish is in the Brassicaceae or Cruciferae family, the mustard family. See our Chicory Offerings for more information.
In coffee, a specific multi-faceted tropical fruit flavor found in Chirimoya (Cherimoya). Wikipedia: Some characterize the flavor as a blend of banana, pineapple, papaya, peach, and strawberry. Others describe it as tasting like commercial bubblegum. Similar in size to a grapefruit, it has large, glossy, dark seeds that are easily removed. When ripe, the skin is green and gives slightly to pressure, similar to the avocado.
Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are important to coffee flavor, contributing to flavor when in the proper balance and level. They are a group of phenolic acids esterified to quinic acid, and account for up to 10% of the weight of green coffee. They are known to have antioxidant properties. Like all acids, its levels are reduced in roasting; darker roasts result in less acidity in the cup. Since it reduces to quinic acid in roasting, and quinic acid in high levels results in perceived bitterness and sourness, too much CGA is not desireable.
Chocolate is a broad, general flavor or aroma term reminiscent of chocolate. But what type? There are so many forms of chocolate, either in its pure state, or as part of another confection. Chocolate flavors are often a “roast taste”, and are dependent on the degree of roast. Look for more specifics; bittersweet chocolate, bakers chocolate, toffee and chocolate, rustic chocolate, cocoa powder, Dutch cocoa, cocoa nibs, Pralines and chocolate, milk chocolate, Mexican hot chocolate, etc. etc.
Chop is an old term for the lot mark on a coffee bag, since the numbers are divided with forward slash marks. That is now correctly called the ICO number. Chops do not refer to music!
Citric acid is, in moderate amounts, a component of good, bright coffees. It is a positive flavor acid in coffee that often leads to the perception of citrus fruits and adds high notes to the cup. Fine high-grown arabica coffees have more citric acid than
Qualities in coffee that are reminiscent of a citrus fruit; orange, lemon, grapefruit, kumquat, etc. Usually these terms imply a brightness in the coffee, a more acidic, wet-processed type of coffee.
Clean cup refers to a coffee free of taints and defects. It does not imply sanitary cleanliness, or that coffees that are not clean (which are dirty) are unsanitary. It refers to the flavors, specifically the absence of hard notes, fruity-fermenty flavors, earthy flavors or other off notes.
Coffee Berry Disease
A fungal disease that results in cherry dying and dropping to the ground before it is ripe. It is a serious problem in Kenya, and most of East Africa, and can be transmitted by the coffee seed.
The process of making an infusion of roasted, ground coffee beans. In the most basic sense, hot water is added to coffee ground to produce a drink. Some brewing methods (espresso, turkish coffee) produce a dense concentrate while other methods (filter drip, vacuum pot) produce a cleaner, more refined cup. Coffee brewing methods have changed much over time and are likely to continue to do so.
Coffee is a fruit from a flowering shrubby tree; we have come to call the whole fruit coffee cherry. It usually ripens to a red color, although some types ripen to yellow, and is smaller than most real cherries, but close enough. In other regards, the tree and fruit do not resemble a cherry. Old European texts often refer to the fruit as the “coffee berry”. Coffee cherry can also be a flavor accent in the cup.
Coffee Crop Cycle
The Coffee Crop Cycle refers to the period of growth of the cherry to maturation and harvest. Coffee has one harvest period a year, although in some there is a second small harvest. From the flowering, to the fruit development and ripening, the coffee fruit is on the tree for a long period. The crop cycle differs for many origins. We have a chart that offers a rough estimate , but this too varies from year to year.
Coffea Arabica is susceptible to a host of diseases, such as Coffee Berry Disease (CBD), Coffee Berry Borer (CBB, also known as Broca), and Coffee Leaf Rust (CLR). There are many others, but these diseases do the most economic damage to the coffee crop worldwide.
A mechanism (usually paper or a metal or nylon mesh) for straining coffee ground from brewed coffee.
Coffee grading is the technical skill of evaluating and scoring of physical coffee defects in green coffee. The sample is 300 grams, and there is a particular point system to score the intensity of each defect, based on the full “black bean” which equals 1. Size is also rated in the unit of 1/64ths, so 17 screen means 17/64ths.
A device for grinding coffee beans. Grinders can be broadly classified into blade grinders and burr grinders.
Coffee Growing Regions
Coffee is grown in a belt around the world – roughly from the Tropic of Cancer to the Tropic of Capricorn, in 50 different countries. For specialty grade coffee, altitude ranges from 1800- 6000 feet. The optimum temperature is between 15-24ºC (59-75ºF) year round. Soils and rainfall vary widely from one origin to the next – or even within a large coffee producing country like Ethiopia.
The study of the agronomy of coffee, its chemistry, or other improvements. There are coffee research organizations throughout the world. In Central America, there are
Sorting coffee by removing beans that have a color that indicates a defect. Color coffee sorting is often done by an optical sorting machine, which has a high speed camera that watches a stream of beans and actuates a jet of air to remove off-colored beans. Most high quality coffee also involves hand color sorting, which is traditionally done by women sitting either at conveyor belts or at tables.
The co-presence of many aroma and flavor attributes, with multiple layers. A general impression of a coffee, similar to judgments such as “balanced” or “structured”
The transfer of heat between matter. In coffee, conduction heating is contrasted with convection heating, which occurs in a moving fluid.
Conical Burr Grinder
A conical burr grinder has two cone-shaped burrs that sit inside one another; coffee bean fall between the two burrs and are ground between them. Produces a much more even grind than a whirley blade grinder. Concical burr mills are very even at medium and fine grinds, less so at coarse grinds. The mill can be electrical or cranked by hand.
Transfer of heat through the bulk movement of a fluid. In the case of coffee roasting, we discuss convection in the context of heated air moving as a fluid through a roast chamber.
Conventional means that a coffee is not organic certified, in the coffee trade.